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2020 Edition

Abstract
In this paper, the production line of a company manufacturing metal file cabinets was under-studied with the aim of improving productivity. Lean was deployed with reference to data obtained from a case study company. Material and information flow for the current manufacturing process was studied and designed with the help of Value Stream Map (VSM). Reduction in Lead time was used as a measure for improvement in productivity. The current process had a total cycle time (time taken to process a part) of 8.45 hours and lead time (time an item spends on the floor before being shipped to clients) of 11.3 hours, average order of 240 cabinets monthly from clients. Value stream map was used to study the process flow and one of the production processes (Assembly 1) was found to impact productivity negatively. Assembly 1 was eliminated from the production line because it consumed valuable time of 2 hours and manpower energy. The efficiency of each production stage was measured by how much each impacted the production process. MATLAB and Python programming were used in running the 2k factorial analysis, studying the level of variations within the factors, and studying the effect on the entire system. A new sub-process line (comprising Shearing 1, blanking 1, stamping 1 and forming1) was designed using Value stream map to enhance material and information flow and productivity. With assembly 1 process removed and new adjustments made, the total daily lead time was reduced from 11.3 hours to 6.6 hours and total daily circle time from 8.45 hours to 5.05 hours. Production foremen were reassigned to new roles. The methods and findings of this research if implemented would enable the company to afford producing more than the monthly average of 240 cabinets, and could be used as a template for other local manufacturing companies that desire to go Lean.
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Gabriel E. King, Okwu E. Isaac, Morrison V. Ndor
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp1-8 [Online Full Text]
Abstract
The inhibitive properties of Newbouldia leavis leaf extract for the corrosion of mild steel was investigated using gravimetric technique in 1 mole of sulphuric acid. The leaves were gotten and dried after which they were ground to micron size. The extract of the leaves was obtained using ethanol reflux method and the weight of the leaves extracted deduced. The quantities for different concentrations (0.1g/L, 0.2g/L, 0.3g/L, 0.4g/L and 0.5g/L) of the extract were also deduced and applied into the acidic medium, and the mild steel coupons dipped into them over four hours intervals (4 to 20hrs). The weight loss values for each metal coupon were obtained and the inhibition efficiency calculated. The gravimetric technique used confirmed that Newbouldia leavis leaf extract is a good inhibitor of mild steel corrosion with increasing inhibition efficiency as concentration of the inhibitor increases. Inhibition efficiency values of 72% to 90% were obtained. From the results obtained for weight loss and corrosion rate, it was revealed that Newbouldia leavis leaf extract act as an efficient inhibitor showing weight loss (from 0.173g to 0.017g) and corrosion rate (from 43mm/yr. to 4.2 mm/yr.) decreasing with increase in concentration (from 0.0g/L to 0.5g/L) of the plant extract. Plant extracts are excellent substitute as corrosion inhibitors because of it availability, biodegradability, not expensive, less harmful to humans and environment. This research work has shown that Newbouldia leavis leaf extracts if applied in the right proportions will prolong the life of mild steel in service.
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Yusuf B. Waidi, Barinyima Nkoi , Rex K. C. Amadi and Anthony A.Luke
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp9-16 [Online Full Text]
Abstract
Corrosion inhibition of aluminium alloy by teak tree leaf extract was studied to investigate the effect on corrosion using Gravimetric experiment in 0.5M HCl. The teak tree leaves were obtained from nearby locality, washed and dried, after which they were ground to micro size. Reflux method was use to obtain 25g of leaf extract. Aluminium alloy coupons were dipped into the solutions and were removed at two hours interval. The concentration of the leaf extract was studied using weight loss measurement and the result showed that teak tree leaf extract is good inhibitor. The gravimetric measurement results showed that teak tree leaf extract increased corrosion rate at the beginning of the control experiment and subsequently corrosion rate reduced uniformly over 8 hours of exposure time. These findings showed that the inhibitor has the capacity to protect the metal surface by forming passive film. The inhibition efficiencies obtained varies from 75.33% after 8 hours of exposure to 99.80% after 2 hours of exposure of immersion, both at the 0.4 concentration of the inhibitor in the corrosive media.
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Ovili, A. O., Isaac, E. O., and Ndor, V. M.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp17-24 [Online Full Text]
Abstract
This research adopts the use of first order reliability method (FORM) in managing a waste management system. Questionnaires were distributed to waste management contractors, individuals, residents, schools, corporate bodies, and institutions, companies and industries. Within the questionnaires retrieved, waste generation data of selected zones were added. Vehicles with different capacities in kilogram were selected and the right combination for different vehicles was done based on the factors present, which includes; the expected achievable fixed costs, operations costs, and types of vehicle available. Due to the multiple trial and error method, MATLAB and PYTHON statistical and programming software were used to run mathematical expressions of FORM to output a graph that shows the relationship between operation cost, vehicle capacity and number of the vehicles used. Furthermore, the masses of the waste generated were grouped into three (3); Case 1 (minimum waste generated), Case 2 (mean waste generated) and Case 3 (maximum waste generated) of different capacities - 32011kg/day, 80835kg/day and 122338kg/day respectively. Their summary waste management system capacities were 40000kg, 82000kg and 132000kg respectively. After the application of FORM expressions, Case 1 had a reliability of 74%, Case 2 had 75%, while Case 3 had 77%. The results showed that a system with more vehicles tend to have less reliability. In addition, the results showed that the inter-relationship of these several factors could also affect the reliability of a Solid Waste Management System (SWMS).
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Essiet C. Ekong, Chukwuemeka. P. Ukpaka, Barinyima Nkoi.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp25-33 [Online Full Text]
Abstract
This study focuses on the economic viability of using associated gas (A-gas) as a fuel in gas turbines for power generation applications. GASTURB simulation software was employed in modelling the natural gas and associated gas. Also, it was used for simulating the performance of the gas turbine using the two fuels. When natural gas and A-gas were compared for clean condition, the heat rate of natural gas was found to be 9923 kJ/kWh as against 9974kJ /kWh for an A-gas Fuel. Also, the plots of clean and degraded conditions for natural gas showed that heat rate increased from a clean case of 9923 kJ/kWh to 10178 kJ/kWh for a degraded condition. Techno-economic analysis conducted showed that the annual cost saving for utilizing the A-gas, when obtained at no cost is about $14.1million over the annual cost of natural gas.
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Roupa Agbadede and Isaiah Allison
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp34-42 [Online Full Text]
Abstract
Many sensors have been applied as accident detectors. This paper proposes the application of the vibration sensor, model SPM8667VC for accident detecting in accident reporting systems. The sensor parameters were put into consideration alongside with its operational voltage of 500mV. Various mathematical models were developed to cater for the mechanical and electrical properties of the sensor. This led to the development of a Simulink which was simulated on MATLAB 2014a environment for the various states of accident. The simulation result led to the formulation of a mathematical model that caters for the various levels of accident based on threshold voltages. These levels are categorized as mild accident with a voltage of 150mV, medium accident with a voltage of 280mV and severe accident with a voltage of 580mV. The various levels determine accident severity and when apply in accident reporting system, guide rescuers decision to embark on rescue mission or not.
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Gabriel I. Efenedo, and Frederick O. Edeko
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp43-49 [Online Full Text]
Abstract
This study aims at the use of man and machine input to improve production in an automobile manufacturing system. The goal of this study is carried out using python and MySQL programs to analyze data extracted for parts used to manufacture two car models; Toyota Avalon and Toyota Yaris. Parts where modeled and stored in a Structure Query Language using Python to write an app to help track demand of parts. The current process had a total cycle and rate of 66 weeks and 12hrs 30 minutes to set up a car model in the assembly line. After design of the Value stream map (material and information flow chart) diagram using MS-VISIO 2016 for the current process, a key performance factor; reject ratio (rate of parts going out of stock) was identified that affects the lead-time which is caused by equipment failure. During order analysis simulation using excel, parts bearing part numbers 200542,201501,100330 and 200546 fell short within 0, -24, -22, -17 and -16 in the six-sigma chart respectively. A model was built to curb this factor using Material requirement planning (MRP). MRP is used to plan for parts with low inventory in the assembly line. In conclusion it shows that to make one assembly part 200401; four of part 200402 and eleven of part 200403 will be needed having eliminated poor reject ratio. This aids in dropping the initial lead time to 2 hours and 30 minutes to manufacture a car model and decreasing the task time.
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Ikechukwu M. Opara, Okwu E. Isaac and Felix E. Oparadike
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp50-57 [Online Full Text]
Abstract
This paper aims to provide a compendium of basic information that is easy to read and grasp and readily available for consultation by: students, engineers, and researchers who are not yet much experienced in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) testing but need such information for furthering their knowledge on the subject. SCC has been reaffirmed as an unpredictable dangerous form of corrosion that is often inevitable in engineering service of equipment, vessels, vehicles, buildings, etc.; even with their high technological designs. Proper SCC testing is noted to be crucial for providing threshold tensile stress information for reliable environmental SCC prevention of critical engineering structural components in service. Various standard techniques of SCC testing from the literatures have been reviewed, elucidated with few recent previous researches by some practitioners, and presented. The review has shown that basically, SCC testing involves procurement of test materials in wrought form, and production of specimens to consistent dimensions and uniform smooth surface finish. Other noted essential issues involved in SCC testing are removal of residual stresses in specimens before testing them, and chemical composition and morphological characterization of specimens before and after exposing them in the test environment for determined durations. The paper shows that about 90% of SCC tests are done under constant elastic tensile strain or load with smooth bent beam, U-bend, C-rings, and pre-cracked tensile specimens against strain rate techniques. In order to obtain better applicable test results, it is advisable to always conduct tests with a given material type under different elastic stresses in each given environment using two or more different standard specimen preparation, characterization, and straining techniques to get optimal tensile stresses or strains by overall analysis of results..
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T. N. Guma*, E. O. Ajayi, and M. H. Mohammed
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp58-72 [Online Full Text]
Abstract
Design of pyrolyzer to process 1000kg/day of palm kernel shells (PKS) to fuel oil, water and char was carried out. The PKS was collected from different geographical locations, identified and authenticated before it was washed, sun dried and crushed to a standard grade of 425 µm. The PKS was later pyrolysed in the reactor from 400 - 450oC. The fuel oil product was passed through a condenser submerged in ice bath for cooling to 10oC. The products were assumed to be a parallel first order irreversible reaction. Rate constants (koil, kwater, and kchar) and overall constants k were calculated from the laboratory pyrolysis results and were used to obtain the reactor volume which lead to the determination of the height and diameter of reactor. The thickness of reactor shell was calculated using standard design equations from literature and laboratory data. The heat required for pyrolysis of 1000kg/day of palm kernel shell was obtained from scale up of heat requirement obtained from laboratory results. The lagging thickness was determined through equations of heat transfer resistances across the reactor cross section. The volume of reactor required to pyrolyse 1000kg/day was 107.143m3, the decomposition reaction constant Koil of the fuel oil was 1.153x10-4min-1while the overall constant K was 3.17x104min-1. The energy required to pyrolyse the PKS was 14025kJh-1 while the product temperature and the atmospheric temperature were 723K and 378K, respectively. Total heat transfer resistances across the reactor cross section were found to be between 2.798x10-6 K/W and 2.51 x 10-4 K/W.
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Ajayi, E. A., Ademiluyi, F. T. and Abowei, M. F. N.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp73-83 [Online Full Text]
Abstract
The focus of this study was to evaluate the weld parameters in relation to heat input and their effect on corrosion and mechanical properties. Such properties include hardness, tensile strength and impact toughness of UNS S31803 stainless steel. Using the process of Gas Tungsten Arc Weld, samples of 50.8mm (2inch) UNS S31803 stainless steel pipe with dimensions of thickness 5.54mm and 300mm length were welded. The range of parameters in which the weld was carried out are voltage of 10-12V, speed of weld 50-90mm/min, and weld current 100-150A. To ensure no defects, samples were first tested non-destructively after welding and micro-structural examinations and ferrite content measurements were performed. Corrosion test, according to ASTM G48 standard, was conducted. The heat input effect on hardness, tensile, and impact toughness was also examined. The effects of the parameters were studied from the experiment results. It was observed that there were improved mechanical properties at low heat input than high heat input. The Corrosion rate for optimized parameters at 22oC and 28oC were 0.04g/m2.day, and 0.74g/m2.day respectively, which is lower than the 1.00g/m2.day in which corrosion is said to be initiated. The optimum welding parameters of the experiment were found to be welding current of 100A, voltage of 10V, and speed of 90mm/min. The hardness, tensile strength and impact toughness values for the optimized parameters after conducting a confirmation experiment were found to be 371HVN, 994MPa, and 237J respectively. The study showed that weldment has higher strength values than the base metal.
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Uchendu I. Frank, Macauley T. Lilly, Morrison V. Ndor, and Felix E. Oparadike
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp84-96 [Online Full Text]
Abstract
Efficient bandwidth allocation is important when providing connection and satisfactory quality of service (QoS) to users in wireless networks. To optimize the available bandwidth, conventional allocation techniques are been opt for Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based techniques to enable automatic and efficient bandwidth allocation to users. This paper presents Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) approach for optimum bandwidth allocation in wireless network. WOA, a swarm intelligence AI technique, has been successful in optimization solution for several engineering problems. The allocation was based on bandwidth reservation scheme such that bandwidth is always available for upcoming users after distributing bandwidth to current users. The focus is on bandwidth allocation to real-time traffic to improve performance requirement. The performance analysis was discussed in terms of bandwidth connection probability with consideration to available bandwidth and number of real-time users in the network. The simulation results show WOA-based bandwidth allocation gives good optimization manages the limited available bandwidth of the network.
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Tamuno-omie Joyce Alalibo, Sunny Orike, and Promise Elechi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp118-122 [Online Full Text] of
Efficient Bandwidth Allocation in Wireless Network using Whale Optimization Algorithm
Abstract
The reliability analysis of an FBM Model 38 marine diesel engine, using the Weibull distribution was carried out in this paper. The Weibull parameters, Probability Density Function (PDF), Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) and the Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) of failed parts of the engine were analyzed and reliability of the system was ultimately determined. It was observed that the reliability of the marine diesel engine is inversely proportional to the service time. Results obtained were used to predict future failures of the observed components. Data from the plots showed a shape factor (β) of 6.17031, characteristic life (η) of 9435.29 for the scavenging blower roller bearing. The blower MTBF is 8766.80. There was no expected blower bearing failure in the next four years of engine operations under normal condition. The Turbocharger ball bearing has a β of 2.88035 and η of 7165.63, the MTBF is 6387.74 while 2 turbocharger bearings are estimated to fail in the next 4 years, if the initial failed bearings were replaced. Furthermore, the Injector nozzles tips have β of 2.78436 and η of 11451 and MTBF of 10194.50 three injector tips were expected to fail in the next four years of engine operations. This research is important as it provides a bases for developing a Weibull library for the marine engine components in other to analyze the failure pattern for an improved maintenance management of the engines.
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Onyekachi E. Nnaji, Barinyima Nkoi, Macaulay T. Lilly, and Anthony K. Le-ol
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2020 pp118-122 [Online Full Text] of
Evaluating the Reliability of a Marine Diesel Engine Using the Weibull Distribution
Abstract
This paper investigated the possibility of interfacing the solar photovoltaic (PV) electrical energy to the domestic electric power transmitted and distributed. The domestic electric power supply was converted to DC electric power supply to obtain the same frequency and angle difference with solar PV power source, having the same frequencies and phase differences both sources were paralleled as to increase voltage output. MATLAB was used to simulate both sources with the aim of increasing the total power supply. Results show that the domestic power supply of 62.5kVA and PV solar power supply of 6.25kVA were synchronized to obtain 68.75kVA at 220V AC power, increasing the domestic power supplied to 9.1%. At cloudy weather, dip cells and charge controller are recommended to improve the solar PV electrical power generated. From the work, the combined output of both power from the domestic and solar PV generated enhance the total power supplied. At the point of domestic power failure, the solar PV power generated sustained the essential loads only in operation while the non-essential loads will automatically be switched off. It is strongly recommended that the Solar PV power source should be encouraged as an alternative means of power generation to reduce both non-renewable source of power generation and environmental pollution.
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Inye H. Harry, Christopher O. Ahiakwo, Dikio C. Idoniboyeobu, and Sunny Orike
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2020 pp118-122 [Online Full Text] of
Improvement of Domestic Supply by Interfacing with Solar Photovoltaic Electric Power System
Abstract
The inhibiting effect of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been investigated using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. Gravimetric study for mild steel presented the best average inhibition at 0.3g/mol concentration, and decreased with increase in concentration. The application reduced weight loss of mild steel from 0.1850g to 0.0095g when inhibited at 0.3 g/mol concentration. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Potentiodynamic Polarization (PDP) measurements were also employed in this study. The Nyquist plots of mild steel was determined for different concentrations of Moringa oleifera leaf extract. It confirmed the inhibitive nature of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on the corrosion of mild steel as the corrosion current density decreased with increase in concentration of the extract. Furthermore, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement depicted Moringa oleifera to be a mixed-inhibitor for mild steel. Each technique proved that Moringa oleifera leaves extract is a good inhibitor of mild steel corrosion in acidic medium. Implementation of this research findings will reduce drastically the wastage of mild steel metal products in industries.
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Kingsley I. Mejeh*, Okwu E. Isaac, Felix E. Oparadike, and Anthony A. Luke
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2020 pp118-122 [Online Full Text] of
Study of Corrosion Inhibitive Behaviour of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract on Mild Steel
Abstract
This paper modelled the eccentricity in three-phase induction motors and the accompanying performance. The geometry of three-phase asynchronous induction motor was utilized to calculate dynamic electromagnetic torque and inductances for the purpose of performance improvement. The position-dependent variation of the mechanical energy was applied to the rotor through the air gap which generates the mutual inductance across the stator-rotor circuitry. The entire six-by-six inductance matrix modelled for the non-concentric three-phase induction motor was analytically differentiated and used to model the torque equation for the eccentric motor. The approach was simulated in MATLAB and ratified with an eccentricity degree of zero (non-existent) which tallied and rhymed with that gotten for a healthy induction motor. Results obtained show that an eccentric motor rotor does not accelerate uniformly, but glitches and flickers intermittently until it attains a maximum speed of about 320 rad/sec, whereas for the healthy motor, the rotor accelerates uniformly from rest to peak giving rise to a load-less motor speed of 0.33sec. For eccentricity degrees greater than 0.7, the air gap function for a non-concentric three-phase induction motor goes higher than 1.0 at some points and hits zero at lowest values thereby validating that the displacement of the rotor position from the normal is directly proportional to the degree of eccentricity.
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Olalowo S. Olaleye, Christopher O. Ahiakwo, Dikio C. Idoniboyeobu, and Sunny Orike
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp118-122 [Online Full Text] of
Modeling of Eccentricity and Performance of Three-Phase Induction Motors
Abstract
This study considered the application of reliability-centred maintenance methodology to reduce process loss in a butterfly Valve system. Failure mode and effects analysis were adopted for this study as the preferred reliability centred maintenance tool. This involved studying each component of an equipment to ascertain its failure mode, the root cause of each failure, and the effect of each failure mode. Mean time between Failure, Mean time to repair, and availability of sub-components were calculated. The results showed three components with the lowest percentage availability. These components are the bearing, the flange, and the stem with their percentage availability as 99.04%, 99.38%, and 99.58% respectively. This implies that these sub-components fail more often compared to others. Using the result for the mean time between failure, the risk priority number was calculated and showed components with the highest initial risk priority number, namely: seals, flange, seats, and bolts. These have risk priority numbers of 540, 450, 450, and 432 respectively. After failure mode and effect analysis were carried out, a revised risk priority number was obtained for the four components as 180, 90, 180, and 144 respectively. The reduction in risk priority number implies a reduction in component failure of the Butterfly valves.
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Tamunosa Dappa-Brown, Barinyima Nkoi, Elemchukwu O. Isaac, and Felix E. Oparadike
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp118-122 [Online Full Text] of
Using Reliability-Centred Maintenance to Reduce Process Loss in Valves System: A Case Study
Abstract
This paper developed faster communication grid architecture for signaling and information sharing, with robust distributed cloud management architecture that links the processes for both faults and load management. Experiments were carried out on smart grid (SG) layered time-delay optimization model (LTDOM) using schemes such as SG Neural Network Algorithm (proposed technique), SG stackelberg game algorithm (SGSGA), SG chaos-flower pollination algorithm (SGCFPA), SG cuckoo search algorithm (SGCSA), SG differential search algorithm (SGDSA), and SG cournot algorithm (SGCA) were used for validation of the study. Riverbed Modeller software academic version 17.5 was used to setup the experimental design for LTDOM architecture and the various algorithms were developed with C++ to achieve the simulation test-bed. Smart grid metrics such as energy data received, service delays, media access delays and service throughput were used for performance evaluation. For example, the service throughput results showed that the proposed SGNNLA, SGSGA, SGCFPA, SGCSA, SGDSA and SGCA had 24.09%, 21.68%, 16.86%, 15.66%, 12.04% and 9.63% respectively. This implies that as load demands in the peak periods is being shifted to the off-peak periods, the proposed SGNNLA utilized optimum resources while delivering satisfactorily on the grid network when compared to other schemes.
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Sunny Orike, Christopher O. Ahiakwo, Dikio C. Idoniboyeobu and Raphael M. Onoshakpor
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp118-122 [Online Full Text] of
A Time-Delay Smart Grid Communication Optimization Model for Transient Fault Tracing and Load Management
Abstract
This paper is aimed at designing and constructing a portable multi–mode induction motor starter which includes a Direct on Line (DOL), Variable Frequency Drive (VFD), and star– delta starting modes. Several starting and control modes are available. The design is done such that a three-phase induction motor could be started with each of the starting modes independently, depending on the requirement of the user of such induction motor. The selection of each of the starting modes is done with the aid of a button which is automated by an Arduino programmed board. An overload relay is used for system protection to detect an over current in the system. System protection is facilitated by the contactors and the Arduino board output relays and these two components get instruction from the Arduino board. A portable multi–mode induction motor starter has been successfully designed and implemented in the module that is presented. On testing of the module with a 1hp induction motor, it was observed that the DOL mode starting current peaked at 1.61A while that of the VFD peaked at 0.31A. The designed and implemented module provides a simple means of choosing an adequate operational mode to operate an induction motor under full and no-load conditions; view operational conditions (i.e. operational current of the induction motor), as well as, serves as a protective circuitry for the induction motor powered system during operation.
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Olisa I. Emenike, Ahiakwo O. Christopher, and Braide L. Sepiribo
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), March, 2020 pp118-122 [Online Full Text] of
Design and Construction of Multi-Mode Induction Motor Starter
Abstract
Fuel as the major sources of energy in the life of every power unit plays energetic role in all farm operations requiring tractor application. Field tests were conducted to compare the dependency of fuel consumption on speed and depth of plough during ploughing operation. An experimental field of 160m by 32.5m (5200m2) area was cleared and divided into three blocks of nine sub-blocks. Each of the blocks was marked out in 5m by 50m for different treatments. Alleys to the plot of dimensions of 2m by 50m were provided. The equipment and tractor used for the tillage operations were disc plough and Swaraj 978FE. Properties such as moisture content, bulk density, tractor forward speed, depth and width of cut, time and amount of fuel used during ploughing operation were measured and employed in fuel consumption evaluation. Fuel consumption was estimated by quantity of fuel consumed per time taken to complete each treatment. The experimental data obtained were analysed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Coefficient of variation (CV). From the results, the fuel consumptions for the combined forward speeds and depths of 10cm and 1.39m/s; 10cm and 1.94m/s; 10cm and 2.50m/s; 20cm and 1.39m/s; 30cm and 1.94m/s; 20cm and 2.50m/s; 30cm and 1.39m/s; 30cm and 1.94m/s; 30cm and 2.50m/s, were 2.08E-06 m3/s, 2.33E-06 m3/s, 2.50E-06 m3/s, 3.41E-06 m3/s, 3.33E-06 m3/s, 4.76E-06 m3/s, 3.75E-06 m3/s, 4.78E-06 m3/s, and 5.83E-06m3/s respectively. Also, coefficient of determination R2 of 0.9869; 0.9858 and 0.9975 for speeds of 1.39, 1.94 and 2.50 m/s respectively and as well, tillage depth coefficient of determination R2 = 0.8913; 0.9852 and 0.9292 for depth of 10, 20 and 30 cm. ANOVA showed significant differences with 99 and 95 confidence levels on effect of forward speeds, tillage depths and their combined effects. Also, CV of 0.37 % confirmed that experimental error was low and reliable. Hence, it is recommended that the tractor forward speed and crop roots’ depth should be the determining factors to minimize cost on fuel consumption.
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Silas Ovua Nkakini, and Raymond Alex Ekemube
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2020 pp60-69 [Online Full Text] of
Evaluation of the Effects of Tractor Forward Speed and Tillage Depth on Fuel Consumption during Ploughing Operation
Abstract
In this study, reducing the running cost of a chemical plant, and also increasing profitability using equipment condition monitoring (ECM) were done. Condition monitoring data of critical equipment were collected from case study plant and different condition monitoring techniques were used for analysis. A regular bearing failure of a turbine led to carrying out a root cause of failure analysis (RCFA) using ishikawa diagram. The analysis revealed lube oil as the culprit, a lube oil analysis was done using Spectro oil analyzer (Spectro-Q153) which showed high water in oil of about 41,250ppm and a viscosity of 287.5cst. Cost benefit analysis were done on four equipment. The cost analysis revealed that ECM increased availability of all equipment and a downtime savings of 35.89% for Waste Heat Boiler (WHB), 88.2% for Firebox, 60% for Aux. Boiler, and 70.8% for the Carbonate pump turbine was achieved. Also achieved was a savings on Total Maintenance Cost of N3,328,389,446 for WHB, N11,376,330,000 for Firebox, N1,306,198,614 for Aux. boiler and N1,776,304,000 for the Carbonate pump turbine. This research proposed running a steam turbine at a pressure good enough to constantly get rid of steam condensate which is a high source of water in oil. The findings revealed that though setting up an ECM program may be expensive in the early stage, it promised great financial savings as related to maintenance and downtime cost. This savings tends to increase profitability of a firm.
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Umenwor I. Henry, Barinyima Nkoi, Rex K.C. Amadi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2020 pp70-83 [Online Full Text] of
The Use of Equipment Condition Monitoring Techniques on Cost Reduction in the Chemical Industry: A Case Study
Abstract
A model was developed for the prediction of tractive forces on wheel tractors during ploughing on tilled loamy sand soils of the rainforest zone of Nigeria. The area of study covered, was 90 m by 90 m, which was sub-divided into three blocks of 90m by 27m and a further nine (9) strips of 90m by 2m with alleys of 3m. Randomized soil samples were collected using soil auger. A field moisture content of 25% was determined gravimetrically; and tyre parameters obtained through measurements and from tyre data books. The mobility number connected together with the measured tractor wheel variables of tyre width, diameter, and section height, tyre weight and deflection formed dimensionless term. The plots were ploughed, using trace tractor techniques pattern in randomized three replications at tractor forward speed of 2.5 m/s. The experimental tractive force was measured using EDjunior dynamometer. The cone index (CI) of the ploughed soils was determined with a soil cone penetrometer and used to calculate the mobility number that was correlated with the measured (experimental) tractive forces to obtain the predictive equations. The model developed was validated with graphical comparison between the measured and predicted model tractive force values, and showed a corresponding coefficient of determination of R2=0.837. There were no significant differences between the measured and predicted values of the tractive forces at (p>0.05). It was further observed that the tractive force decreased as the soil moisture content increased. The model developed indicated good agreement between the measured and predicted results and would, therefore, be useful for predicting tractive forces during ploughing operations.
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S. O. Nkakini, J.D. Enoch and R.A. Ekemube
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2020 pp84-94 [Online Full Text] of
Development of a Predictive Model for Tractive Force During Ploughing on a Loamy Sand Soil Using Curve Fitting Technique
Abstract
This paper presents the improvement of 132/33KV transmission injection substations protection, mainly short circuit fault on Port Harcourt Mains Zone-2 network and it seeks to correct the irregular tripping sequence, poor discrimination of relays, improper isolation action by the circuit breaker, poor current transformer ratio (CTR) calibration of the system. The 3x60MVA injection substation of the network was modeled. Short circuit analysis technique embedded in Electrical Transient Analyzer tool version 16.0 software was used to determine the tripping sequence of relay to circuit breaker coordination, using data from Transmission Company of Nigeria and Port Harcourt Electricity Distribution Company of Nigeria (PHED). The tripping sequence operation report showed that faults created at respective classified zones: A, B, C and D were analyzed and observed in accordance to the individual relay responsiveness to faults conditions. When a three (3) phase fault created at Zone-B, an irregular relay-tripping sequence was observed in the order of 1, 3, 2, and 4 with a tripping time of 11.5ms. This indicates violation in the relay response to fault conditions. Evidently, a new case of the study was re-modelled in order to satisfy the statutory conditions. The current transformer (CT-ratio) of the existing condition of (1200/1 = 1200:1) was modified through short-circuit calculation to (900/5 = 900:5) in order to enhance orderly coordinated sequential tripping of 1, 2, 3 and 4 with a tripping time of 7.1ms. The new case showed improved protection (i.e. the irregular relay tripping sequence in the order of 1, 3, 2 and 4 and tripping time of 11.ms of Zone B with a 3 phase fault was improved to have a regular relay tripping sequence in the order of 1, 2, 3 and 4 and tripping time reduced from 11.5ms to 7.1ms) using short circuit analysis technique through relay coordination of the 132/33KV Port Harcourt Mains Z2 injection Substation in Rivers State.
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Damgbor, P. N., Ahiakwo, C. O., and Braide, S.L
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), September, 2020 pp1-10 [Online Full Text] of
Improvement of 132/33KV Transmission Injection Substations Protection in Rivers State Using Short Circuit Analysis Technique
Abstract
Proper Maintenance can be the major factor in distinguishing between a reliable pump and one which breaks down often. In this study, data concerning component life and occurrence of problems in centrifugal pumps was collected from a downstream petroleum product depot. This study analysed 40 occurrences of failures on 5 pumps used for 3 different products: PMS, AGO and DPK. Of these failures, mechanical seal occurred 13 times, suction strainer and coupling rubber occurred 6 times each, and other components accounted for the remaining. Mean Time Between Failures were computed as 1600hr, 1600hr, 4800hr, 738hr, 9600hr, 4800hr, 9600hr, 2400hr and 1920hr for Coupling Rubber, Suction Strainer, Pump Bearing, Mechanical Seal, Electrical Motor, Pump Casing, Oil Seal, Motor Coupling and Impeller respectively. Failure rates (λ) were computed as 0.0625%, 0.0625%, 0.0208333%, 0.1354167%, 0.0104167%, 0.0208333%, 0.0104167%, 0.0416667%, 0.000520833% and 0.0416667% in the same order. Ishikawa diagrams were used to present Root Cause Analysis of failures. Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis was employed to analyse data. Cost analysis was done on current maintenance plan and a cost-effective and optimal Maintenance Plan was recommended for every Centrifugal Pump user. The idea behind this plan is to replace the maintenance work on mechanical seal and suction strainer from time-based to condition based. The new plan was shown to reduce total costs by 40% without compromising availability of equipment. With adherence to this plan, users can easily be rest assured of a pump with high reliability, available for use 97 percent of the time.
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Sijibomi A. Olabisi, Chukwuemeka P. Ukpaka, Barinyima Nkoi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), September, 2020 pp11-21 [Online Full Text] of
Application of Reliability Techniques to Evaluate Maintainability of Centrifugal Pump used for Petroleum Product Delivery
Abstract
This paper presents the design and simulation of an intelligent traffic light control system for Cross road at Government Reserved Area (GRA) junction along Aba Road, Port Harcourt in Rivers State. This was motivated on the need to reduce traffic congestion in GRA junction Port Harcourt during rush hours. The system was developed on the Arduino 1.8.7 integrated development environment (IDE), implemented using the C++ programming language and simulated on the Proteus 8.9 SP3 platform. The design was based on signal timing sequence and lane population detection. Two Light Dependent Resistors (LDR) sensors were assumed to be placed per lane and 32m apart from each other to accommodate 7 vehicles. The operation is based on signal timing sequence when all lanes have approximately the same population of vehicles and when the population on the number of vehicles on each lane does not exceed 7. Lane preference was activated by the lane population sensors when the population of vehicles in a lane exceeds or was at the second lane population detection (LDR) on that lane thus giving such lane or lanes right of way and ignoring the lane with less vehicles. The results show that when this sequence was in place, only one lane was passed (given the right of way) at a time thus ensuring safety of vehicles plying the road.
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Bodunrin I. Bakare, Sunny Orike and Tam E. Ikpuku
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), September, 2020 pp22-29 [Online Full Text] of
Design and Simulation of an Intelligent Traffic Light System for Cross Road at G.R.A Junction, Aba Road, Port Harcourt
Abstract
The aim of this paper was to examine the effect of corrosion on Opukushi Seibou Oil field flowline and also evaluate the reliability of the flowline. The corrosion failure is as a result of absence of corrosion inhibitor in Well 24T 6 inches flowline pipe. The first order reliability method analysis using Weibull distribution model was developed in python computer program, to analyze data of the corroded pipe. Piping dimensions from the field were obtained in imperial units for this research computer program and final results in SI units. Thickness of pipe t2 is 7.11mm, the depth of corrosion d is 5.588mm, longitudinal length L of corrosion is 305.05mm and operating pressure of the flowline Po is 8.49Mpa. Standard ASME code that relates extent of corrosion to the burst pressure of a corroded pipe was used to carry out a Monte Carlo Simulation for the burst pressure. Assumptions were made for corrosion longitudinal length and depth to take up the shape of a normal exponential distribution. The random value generated simulated random event that could happen at any point in the pipe. Two thousand (2000) samples were iterated using the python program to obtain results. For each sample generated the values of d and L were substituted into the equation for burst pressure as per ASME B31. The Two thousand (2000) equivalent samples for the burst pressure resolved from the Monte Carlos random sample for d and L were plotted. The shape of the distribution is in form of a Weibull distribution, which was used to calculate the probability that the pipe burst pressure is greater than the operating pressure of the pipe(P_b>8.49MPA). The resulting probability of 68% from a Weibull distribution of scale factor was equal to 0.0556MPA and shape parameter of 1.849(no unit), showed that the pipe was not reliable, indicating that at the present condition of the pipe it will not survive 10 more years without getting damaged.
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Kelvin A. Afamefune, Chukwuemeka P. Ukpaka, and Barinyima Nkoi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), September, 2020 pp30-40 [Online Full Text] of
Reliability Analysis of Opukushi Seibou Oil Field Flowline Against Corrosion Failure
Abstract
Unstable grid frequency impedes grid power system security, reliability and stability. Frequency outside the predefined range results to overheating, increases vibration, and destroys turbine shaft & blades. Underfrequency destroys equipment of consumers. Loadfrequency controller is used to create the balance between load and generation of each control area by means of speed control. In this work, frequency deviation problem associated with load frequency control is analyzed by Genetic Algorithm (GA) tuned proportional integral controller (PID) for Afam two area power system. MATLAB codes were developed for GA based PID controller tuning, the results of which were used to study the system step response. Three cases were considered during the load perturbation and the system frequency performances based on the settling time, rise time and % peak overshoot were analyzed. Initially the system was run without the use of the controller (i.e., with all the PID gains = 0) and with a load change of 10% in area 1, and it is found out that the system is unstable. But the introduction of GA tuned PID controller improved the power system dynamic responses as zero ACE was achieved. It is observed from the result that frequency reached steady state value within reasonable time (around 12 sec), peak overshoot was well below 25%, and rise time was around 0.5seconds. This illustrates that the improved technique (GA tuned PID controller) provides a lasting solution to the frequent grid frequency instability, caused by mismatch between load demand and generation, which threatens system security, reliability and stability.
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Chujor C. Cornelius, Dikio C. Idoniboyeobu, and Braide L. Sepiribo
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), September, 2020 pp41-53 [Online Full Text] of
Grid Frequency Regulation and Stability Using Load Frequency Control in Power Plants
Abstract
Adsorption of crude oil in aqueous media using dried plantain (Musa paradisiaca) peels (PP) and plantain leaves (PL) was studied. Effect of particle size, dosage, contact time, initial crude oil concentration in terms of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and effect of microbial count were investigated. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were employed to analyse the experimental data. The results showed that the higher the particle size for both adsorbents PP and PL the higher the adsorption in a reverse adsorption phenomenon and particle size of 800μm (0.8mm), gave optimal result. Adsorption increased with dosage until equilibrium saturation was achieved. 2.0g was the optimum dosage obtained at equilibrium for both PP and PL. Adsorption increased with reduction in crude oil concentration, PP and PL recorded 98.84% and 99.07% respectively for initial crude oil concentration of 5207.74mg/L, TOC. Crude oil adsorption increased sharply within 10 minutes contact time, equilibrium was achieved in 120 minutes for both PP and PL with an optimum result of 99% crude oil adsorbed. Result showed an increment in microbial count in the aqueous medium of PL and crude oil after 24 hours incubation process. The Temkin adsorption model with a regression coefficient of 0.9919 provided the best fit to the experimental data compared to the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Therefore, based on the results obtained, these adsorbents have the potential of being an efficient tool for remediation in attempting to resolve the age long challenge of crude oil spillage/pollution in aqueous medium.
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Ademiluyi, F.T., Omorogbe, H., Dune, K. K., and Dimkpa, S. O. N.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), September, 2020 pp54-65 [Online Full Text] of
Adsorption of Crude Oil in Aqueous Medium Using Dried Plantain (Musa Paradisiaca) Leaves and Peels
Abstract
This work presents the design of a plant to recover carbon dioxide from wort fermentation for preservation of carbonated drinks. The feed composition data was gotten from International Breweries Port Harcourt (Formally PABOD Breweries Plc) which has 95% CO2, 4% Ethanol and 1% water. The material and Energy balance, Equipment sizing, costing and simulation was carried with the help of ASPEN HYSYS which gave 99.9% CO2 purity that conforms with the standard for food beverage industries. The optimal process flow diagram for CO2 recovery from wort fermentation was determined using HYSYS and this has economic advantage of reduction in the cost of production without adverse impact on the purity of CO2. The plant designed with ASPEN HYSYS and simulated whose results when compared with manual results gave agreement. The design also involves unit operations (Gas separator, Gas washer, CO2 Storage tank and stripper) in terms of cost, production rate and profit maximization at given conditions of the various unit operations. Also, material balance for Gas washer, Gas separator and stripper to develop the models for the design parameters for the recovery of CO2 from wort fermentation was carried out using HYSYS.
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Emmanuel C. Nwankwoala, Taiwo F. Ademiluyi, and Kenneth K. Dagde
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), September, 2020 pp54-65 [Online Full Text] of
Design of Carbon Dioxide Recovery Plant from Wort Fermentation for Preservation of Carbonated Drinks.
Abstract
This study evaluated the thermodynamic and adsorption properties of aqueous extract of Codiaeum Variegatum Brilliantissima - Zanzibar (Wire Croton) as an inhibitor of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl base stock solution using gravimetric measurement focused on the effect of immersion time, inhibitor concentration and temperature. The result showed that the adsorption of the cold aqueous extracts of Wire Croton on mild steel surface favored Langmuir adsorption isotherm as supported by an overall correlation coefficient (R2) close to unity. The equilibrium constant of adsorption process (Kads) for Wire Croton inhibitor evaluated mathematically is 0.0106, 0.0131, 0.1276, 0.1171 and 0.0269 (mg/L) with free energy of adsorption (ΔGoads) values of 1.345, 0.821, -5.256, -5.182 and -1.445 kJ/mol for concentrations of 73.6, 147.2, 220.8, 294.4 and 368 mg/L exposed to 303, 313, 323, 333 and 343 K respectively. The small values of Kads suggest weak adsorption which is corroborated by the low negative values of the free energy of adsorption, ΔGoads, values obtained from thermodynamic measurements. The adsorption of Wire Croton inhibiting particles on the mild steel surface was favorable from thermodynamic point of view since values of ΔGoads for more concentrations of the inhibitor were negative and provided proof that aqueous extract of the inhibitor is an efficient inhibitor.
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Izionworu, Vincent Onuegbu; Oguzie, Emmanuel Emeka and Arukalam, Okechi Innocent
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), September, 2020 pp1-13 [Online Full Text] of
Thermodynamic and Adsorption Evaluation of Codiaeum Variegatum Brilliantissima - Zanzibar as Inhibitor of Mild Steel Corrosion in 1 M HCl
Abstract
The increased air pollution, explosions that will lead to injury/fatality as well as reduced fuel performance caused by adulterated/impure petroleum products are detectable and preventable. In this paper, a portable microcontroller-based refractometer petroleum purity tester for detecting adulterated/impure petroleum products by measuring the dielectric constant value of the liquids was designed and implemented, focusing on households. The design was based on the principle of lasers and photoconductivity (light dependent resistor). The device was calibrated for the following fuel products: Premium Motor Spirit (PMS), Automotive Gas oil (AGO) or diesel, House-Hold Kerosene (HHK) with a tolerance of ±0.02 from standard dielectric constant value of the liquids. The device was used to test unknown fuel samples. The refractive index of the measured fuel product was converted to dielectric value and compared with its standard dielectric constant (PMS = 2.0, AGO = 2.1, HHK = 1.8). The device was able to detect adulterated and non-adulterated fuel products. The device is suitable for households to make real time decision and avoid home accident.
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Folorunsho M. Odeyemi, Sunny Orike, and Benjamin U. Igbinomwanhia
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), September, 2020 pp14-24 [Online Full Text] of
Design and Construction of a Refractometer for Measuring Dielectric Constant of Fuels
Abstract
The use of friction stir welding (FSW) in welding ASTM A536 Grade 60-40-18 cast iron was carried out in this research work. This was with a view to ascertain and improve the quality of the welded joint produced using FSW when compared with other conventional welding processes like tungsten inert gas welding (TIG) and manual metal arc welding (MMA). Taguchi method for design of experiments was adopted to determine the effects of the various process parameters such as welding speed, travel speed and tilt angle on the quality of the welded joints produced. There was the need to select FSW parameters that give the optimum quality of welded joints. Results obtained indicate that better hardness and impact strength values were obtained when FSW was used in welding cast iron than the conventional welding processes such as Tungsten inert gas (TIG) and metal inert gas (MIG). The hardness of FSW obtained was 175HRB and those of TIG weld and MIG welded joints were 102HRB and 90HRB, respectively. It was also observed that the ultimate tensile strength of FSW is slightly lesser than that of TIG welded joint with a percentage deviation of 3.49%. Generally, the results of non-destructive test (NDT) carried out on all the welded joints indicate good visual and magnetic particle test results with the absence of porosity and surface cracks.
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Amua, L. E., Sodiki, J. I., Isaac, O. E., and Ndor, M. V.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), September, 2020 pp14-24 [Online Full Text] of
Improving Weld Joint Quality Using Friction Stir Welding Technique

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Faculty of Engineering.
Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
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