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Volume 3 Issue 2

A comparative study of the corrosion inhibition performance of Neem (NM) and bitter leaf (BL) extracts when used individually and in combined form (NMBL 1:1, NMBL 1:3 and NMBL 3:1) to mitigate the corrosion of stainless steel in cassava pulp filtrate was undertaken. The corrosion rates obtained in the presence of Neem (NM) extract were lower compared to corrosion rates obtained in environments containing blends of the extracts (NMBL 1:1, NMBL 1:3, NMBL 3:1). This implies that the inhibition efficiency of Neem (NM) extract was better than blends of Neem (NM) and bitter leaf (BL) in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1. Also, the corrosion rates obtained in environments containing Bitter leaf (BL) extract are lower compared to corrosion rates obtained in environments containing blends of extracts (NMBL 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1). This is an indication that the corrosion inhibition performance of Bitter leaf (BL) extract is better than the blends of Neem (NM) and Bitter leaf (BL) in ratios of 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1. The adsorption of the extracts (Neem (NM), Bitter leaf (BL) and blend of Neem and Bitter leaf extracts in ratio of 1:3) obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The adsorption of the extracts (blends of Neem and Bitter leaf extracts in ratios of 1:1 and 3:1) did not obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The extracts inhibited the corrosion of the metal samples by physical adsorption.
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Emmanuel Elachi Elachi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2021 pp1-12 Corrosion Inhibition Performance of Selected Green Plants and Their Blends on Stainless Steel in Cassava Pulp Filtrate [Online Full Text]
Adsorption of crude oil in an aqueous medium using different cultivars of Cassava Peels was investigated. The effect of particle size, dosage, initial concentration, and contact time of dried Cassava Peels on the degradation of crude oil in an aqueous solution was studied. It was established that as the particle size of Cassava Peels increases, the adsorption increases, and vice versa. The result showed that Cassava Peels with a particle size of 800μm have the optimal amount of crude oil adsorbed thus implying that a bigger particle size is required for effective adsorption of crude oil in an aqueous solution. Adsorption of crude oil increased as the dosage of the biosorbent increased until equilibrium was achieved. Adsorption of crude oil in solution was established to increase with a decrease in initial crude concentration. The effect of contact time showed that crude oil adsorption increased rapidly within the first 10mins, thereafter, equilibrium was achieved in a contact time of 120mins. The experimental data fitted well into Freundlich and Temkin Isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained for the two optimal cultivars was 714mg/g and 2000mg/g respectively. The values of the adsorption intensity for Sample A (n = 1.478) and Sample C (n = 1.125) were greater than 1 indicating that the adsorption of crude oil using Sample A and C is more of chemisorption than only physical adsorption. The result from this study showed that there was the resultant regrowth in the population of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes after 24hrs which indicates that the crude oil environment was utilized by these microorganisms after adsorption of the crude oil using the sorbents from Cassava Peels. This study has shown that Cassava Peels (inactivated) can effectively be used to adsorb crude oil in polluted water.
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Ademiluyi Falilat Taiwo, Nnewuihe Anagor, and Onuoha Wopara
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2021 pp13-26 Adsorption of Crude Oil in Aqueous Medium Using Different Cultivars of Cassava Peels as Biosorbent [Online Full Text]
This research work evaluated pipeline integrity using riskbased inspection on Liquefied Natural Gas Pipeline in Nigeria. The pipeline hazards addressed include; mechanical failure, failure due to corrosion, operational failure, third-party activity and natural hazard. Quantitative and qualitative risk analysis methods were employed to evaluate the integrity of the pipeline. Broad based results revealed that for the total risk measure in Naira at every segment for leaks, holes and ruptures, the second segment (km-2) of the proposed pipeline is poised with the highest risk at N 5,720,670/year and the seventh segment (km-7) of the proposed pipeline is poised with the lowest risk at N 426,589/year. The total risk value determined for the entire 8km pipeline is N 21,422,146/year. Based on the analyzed probability and consequences of failures, the first and seventh segments (KP1 and KP7) of the pipeline were classified as low-risk segments while pipeline segments (KP2, KP3, KP4, KP5, KP6 and KP8) were classified as medium risk segments. The total failure rates for leaks, holes and rupture in the pipeline were 2.63 x 10-4, 1.25 x 10-4 and 2.29 x 10-5/yr.km respectively. The individual risk experienced by a segment in a year was lower than 10-6/yr. ANOVA analysis performed on the risk measures at every segment for leaks, holes and rupture showed that the risk values are statistically significant as the p-value gotten was less than the 0.05 significant level. A framework that evaluates the integrity of the pipeline using risk-based inspection was established ultimately.
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Ikechukwu Chijioke Onyenekwe, Barinyima Nkoi, and Elemchukwu O. Isaac.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2021 pp27-38 Evaluation of Pipeline Integrity Using Risk Based Inspection: A Case Study of Liquefied Natural Gas Pipeline in Nigeria [Online Full Text]
In this research, the production line was modeled according to the various workstation processes for noodle production and optimized with a multi-channel queuing network for application in a food (noodle production company). The service and arrival times for processing in each work station was calculated on an average basis daily. The average utilization of each workstation for noodle process was also determined by mathematical models using the multi-channel queuing system for an infinite queuing network. It was observed that the arrival rate ranges of 10-25 units/minute was processed at each workstation and the rate of service of each process was from 12-16 units/minutes. The time for each process varied as the highest arrival rate and service were observed at packaging station while the lowest was observed at the cutting station. The workstation most utilized was the cutting (slicking) workstation and the least utilized was the rolling station. In summary, the noodle production company can be able to increase its productivity if results obtained from this research are implanted on the production workstations for each of the processes.
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Omah, Iheanyi, Okwu E. Isaac, and Barinyima Nkoi.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2021 pp39-45 Application of Multi-Channel Infinite Queuing Network in a Food Production Company [Online Full Text]
Investigation of the effects of mango (mangifera indica) seed oil and castor (ricinus communis) seed oil-based lubricants on friction and wear performance of steel-steel surface contacts was carried out in this study. Petroleum-based lubricants are hazardous and contaminate the environment. There is need to develop credible alternatives, which are biodegradable and environmentally friendly. The Soxhlet extraction method was used to extract vegetable oils from these seeds. The oils were subjected to laboratory analyses and formulations with nanoparticles additives. Friction and wear performance tests were carried out on the pin-on-disc apparatus according to ASTM G 99 standard. The addition of nanoparticles to pure mango seed oil and castor seed oil, respectively, improved their coefficient of friction by 21%, and 41%, respectively, and performed well in comparison to SAE20W50. Wear test results showed that pure mango seed oil and pure castor seed oil, and 1% titanium dioxide nanoparticle in mango seed oil have, respectively, 23%,7% and 36% better total wear performance than the reference commercial engine oil (SAE20W50). Among samples of castor oil formulated with nanoparticles, 2% aluminum oxide had the best wear performance, but the resulted wear mass loss was 20% higher than the result obtained from the SAE20W50l. Wear scars on the steel surfaces were analyzed with scanning electron microscope. The performance of these vegetable oils confirmed that they are excellent candidate lubricant oil-based stock that should be fully exploited and utilized.
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John Ameh, Steven Odi-Owei, John Sodiki, Barinyima Nkoi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2021 pp46-55 Effects of Mango Seed and Castor Seed Oils with Nanoparticle Additives on Friction and Wear Performance of Steel-Steel Contacts [Online Full Text]
A major technology application is needed in neonatal health care; this refers to the monitoring of vital physiological parameters of premature infants. However, the neonatal monitoring system in most developing countries like Nigeria is not uniform and mostly manual; causing discomfort, data loss and human error. This paper therefore developed a noninvasive system to automate the neonatal monitoring process in the incubators of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The Developed Monitoring System (DMS) consists of a supervisory microcomputer and sensitive sensors for measuring the vital signs. The Conventional Monitoring System (CMS) was used simultaneously with the DMS to collect the vital sign readings of thirty (30) neonates, over a period of one week. A test of significance (t-Test) at 5% level was performed on the data collected from both methods to ascertain the accuracy of the DMS readings. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the vital signs readings taken by the DMS and the CMS.
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Sobowale A. A., Olaniyan O. M., Alabi. S. O.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2021 pp56-64 A Non-Invasive Model for Monitoring Vital Signs in Neonatal Unit using Wrist Measuring Sensors [Online Full Text]
This study aims at determining corrosion rates in oil and gas pipelines by application of artificial neural network model to predict corrosion rates on pipeline; and to compare the achieved numerical outcomes with the existing work as special cases. An artificial neural network model capable of predicting the rate of corrosion was developed. The model was able to successfully predict corrosion rate between 0.02mm/yr-0.17mm/yr. The study had a root mean square error of 0.0130; mean absolute error of 0.007, scattered index of 0.1708, and above 91.5% confidence level at training, testing and validation, with coefficient of determination above 95% prediction accuracy, with a relative error of 0.013%-0.047%. Graphs are plotted to show the impact of various physical parameters on pipeline age, environmental pH and temperature. It is detected from the obtained graphical data that multi-factors interactions significantly affect corrosion rates. Furthermore, the contour and surface plots indicate the ascending severity order of the localized attack on the pipes due to factor pairs. The results obtained by ANN predictions are consistent with that of experimental and the validity of the achieved numerical outcomes is ensured by making a comparison with the existing work of special cases. With this concept, the present ANN model reflects the mainstreams understanding of corrosion in acidic environments, and can be easily used to predict the corrosion rates in industrial applications.
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Martins Obaseki, and Paul T. Elijah
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2021 pp65–75 Application of Artificial Neural Network Model to Predict Corrosion Rates on Pipeline [Online Full Text]
This study investigates the impact of building orientation on energy consumption in a building. It includes the analysis of cooling load using Cooling Load Temperature Difference/Solar Cooling Load/Cooling Load Factor (CLTD/SCL/CLF) method with standard design considerations and stipulated guidelines by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). The study takes the design of Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) Corporate Head Office building in Port Harcourt, Nigeria as a case study, to assess the energy saving potential through building orientations that minimize the solar radiation heat gain of the walls. This would reduce the need for auxiliary cooling and consequently reduce the capacity of the air conditioning system required in the building, thereby resulting in lower energy consumption. The cooling load analysis carried out using CLTD/SCL/CLF method modelled in MATLAB program shows that the maximum load of the building occurred at 13:00 hours (1:00pm). The total cooling load of the building was found to be 359804.4W when the building is oriented North-East while it is 292993.72W when the building is oriented North. Thus, the north is a better orientation for less energy consumption and would achieve an annual energy savings of 252394.047kWh, which translates to potential energy cost savings of ₦12, 670,181.16 annually. The study validated appropriate building orientation selection as an energy efficiency strategy and architectural solution to optimized energy consumption and cost in buildings.
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Rabiat O. Salihu, John I. Sodiki and Barinyima Nkoi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2021 pp76–87 The Effect of Building Orientation on Energy Cost in Air Conditioning Systems [Online Full Text]
The research work is aimed at designing the fuel system for a medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) unmanned aerial vehicle. Empirical values were adopted and evaluated to ascertain if the allotted values provided will meet up the required endurance provided in the specification. On evaluating, it was observed that the allotted fuel weight will only provide about 23 hours endurance, and this is below the customers’ specification. In that regards, further work was carried out to vary the weight of fuel to achieve the costumers’ request of 25 hours endurance. However, the MTOW has to be traded off as a result of increase in the fuel weight. In addition, Reynolds number was also evaluated and the result obtained justifies that the fuel flow in laminar even though the flow is very slow. Therefore, to correct this sluggishness and flow cavitation as well as vapor lock, electric driven pump was incorporated along the pipe installation and a pressure relief valves. Finally, Arduino code was obtained from electronic Hub and adjusted to suit the aircraft indication system. The code was compiled and during the experiment the fluid was varied at Low, Average and Full. Furthermore, CATIA software was employed to carry out the initial and detailed design in conformity to the system architecture.
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Avwunuketa, Ayedun Alex, Adamu, Mohammed Lawal, and Yakubu, Bilali
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), June, 2021 pp88–99 The Design of Fuel Systems for Medium Altitude Long Endurance (Male) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle [Online Full Text]

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