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Volume 3 Issue 3

Abstract
This paper presents the outcome of our research on the optimization of output in the present-day Nigerian power stations using Afam power plant as a case study. Afam power plant is a representative of the about 23 power generating plants connected to the Nigerian national grid which has a total installed capacity of circa 12,000MW. This work has been done using the formulation of various cases of load dispatch equations relevant to the subject and hybrid computational approach i.e., Non-Linear Programming (NLP) optimization method. The authors have applied the various formulations to the operations information at Afam Power Plant. Results revealed that for load dispatch without power generator constraints, generated power is about 650MW, while for load dispatch with power generator constraints, generated power is about 610MW. The results also show that Afam power plant did not produce maximum output in most of the years between 2010 and 2016. The worst years were 2011, 2014 and 2016 due to obvious issues ranging from maintenance downtime to unavailability of transmission line to receive generated power. The research shows that the output of Afam power plant started to improve from 2017 to first Quarter of 2020. Further analysis shows that for system losses and generator limits, dispatch and total cost in naira per hour for a given number of generators load demand can be determined.
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Folorunso O. Kolade, Sunny Orike, Christopher O. Ahiakwo, and Dikio C. Idoniboyeobu
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Sept, 2021 pp1-10 Maximization of Output and Effective Load Dispatch of Afam Power Plant [Online Full Text]
Abstract
The study clarifies the mechanism of debris formation and adhesion on metal counterface. Polymeric materials filled with 30% sodium hydroxide 3, 4 and 5% treated and untreated coconut shell and bagasse fillers 100, 180 and 112 μm particle sizes, respectively, were produced. In the spectroscopic analysis, the increase in the transmittance level of a functional group indicates its reduction. 5% NaOH treated coconut shell filler and 4% NaOH treated bagasse filler had the highest reduced OH functional group in the treated fillers. Their carboxylic acid transmittances were 98.218% and 99.900%, respectively. The carboxylic acid transmittances of the untreated coconut shell and bagasse fillers were 95.218% and 95.954%, respectively. The unfilled polymers had a friction coefficient of 0.21, and their wear rates were in the order of 10-3mm3N-1mm-1. The filled polymers had a friction coefficient lower than 0.21 with varied wear rates. Polypropylene with sieved 100, 180 and 112 μm coconut shell and bagasse particles had wear rates in this order 0.010, 0.008 and 0.011 mm3N-1mm-1, and 0.009, 0.11 and 0.007 mm3N-1mm-1, respectively. The wear rate of the polyethylene with sieved 100, 180 and 112μm coconut shell and bagasse particles were in this order 0.012, 0.006 and 0.010 mm3N-1mm-1, and 0.008, 0.009 and 0.008 mm3N-1mm-1, respectively, in the same order with the particle sizes. The SEM micrograph of the wear track showed low adhesive and detached patchy shapes debris of the polymeric materials on the disc counterface. The larger filler particles caused agglomeration and low dispersion, especially in bagasse-filled polymeric materials. The suggestion, therefore, was the examination of the polymeric material on different metal counterfaces.
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Sylvanus Alibi, Steven Odi-Owei, Charles Obunwo, and Barinyima Nkoi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Sept, 2021 pp11-19 Effect of Treatment of Natural Fillers on the Tribological Behaviour of Polymeric Materials [Online Full Text]
Abstract
In this research, reliability-centered-maintenance (RCM) was applied to reduce the operational cost of heat exchanger and feed water pump in a brewery. The feed water pump and heat exchanger system were selected for RCM analysis as they both have significant impacts on the quantity and quality of the beer produced in the brewery. The failure mode effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) of the production systems were examined, and a maintenance task was developed for the systems. The exponential reliability method was employed to analyse the failure data collected from the maintenance logbook and records to determine the reliability of their feed water pump and heat exchanger systems for operational cost efficiency. Broad based results showed that the RCM had great impact on the preventive maintenance (PM) tasks. The Run-To-Failure (RTF) frequency was reduced. The result showed that by carrying out the proposed RCM labour plan- the labour cost decreased from N108, 000, 000.00/year to N67, 200, 000.00/year with the proposed PM task. The results showed that about 36.19% of the annual spare parts cost are saved when proposed PM planning is adopted other than the current maintenance (RTF) plan. The maintenance program applied in this study could be adopted by production firms to improve upon the reliability and operational cost of their production equipment.
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Ogra, Olatunbosun Abiodun, Nkoi, Barinyima and Isaac, Elemchukwu O.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Sept, 2021 pp20-31 Using Reliability Centered Maintenance to Reduce Operational Cost of Heat Exchanger and Feed Water Pump in a Brewery [Online Full Text]
Abstract
A comparison of the inhibitive effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves extract and Benzamide in 0.5 M tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid was undertaken using the weight loss method of corrosion measurement. This was aimed at determining which of the inhibitors will function optimally in 0.5 M H2SO4 acid solution. Neem leaves extract offered better corrosion inhibition performance in the acid medium compared to Benzamide. The corrosion rate of mild steel in the acidic environment with Neem leaves extract as an inhibitor was lower compared to the corrosion rate of mild steel in the acidic medium with Benzamide as an inhibitor.The inhibition efficiency of Neem leaves extract was higher compared to Benzamide. The mean corrosion rate of mild steel in the acidic environment with Benzamide and Neem leaves extract as inhibitors were 74.06 mm/day and 66.29 mm/day respectively. The mean inhibition efficiency of Neem leaves extract and Benzamide were 21.37% and 10.21 % respectively in 0.5 M H2SO4 acid solution from the results of weight loss measurement. For optimum corrosion inhibition performance, Neem leaves extract is recommended.
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Emmanuel E. Elachi, Kenneth D. Yusuf, Austine Justine, Micheal Paul, and Aliyu B. Madugu
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Sept, 2021 pp32-42 Comparison of the Inhibitive Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves Extract and Benzamide in Tetraoxosulphate (VI) Acid Solution[Online Full Text]
Abstract
The aim of this research was to optimize production in a brewery using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The Ishikawa diagram was also employed to ascertain the cause of low profit and its effect on the company. Low profit in the brewery was due to production of insufficient quantity of bottled bear, high cost of operation, more resources allocated for other products, frequent damage of products during the packing stage. Here, Feed-forward ANN was trained using set values of solved linear programming problems. In carrying out training for the network, the objective function was set with two (2) variables for canned and bottled beer and four (4) constraints equations for Malted Barley, Sorghum, Hops and Yeast. In the end of the training, the trained neural network was adopted for optimization of production profit for the 2 categories of beer. When the process was optimized, one (1) and fourteen (14) variables of the neutral structure network was formed, an output layer and 1 hidden layer produced 50 neutrons. Also, the feed-forward back propagation algorithm was adopted with a Bayesian regularization error. After producing 115,000 bottles and 137,000 cans of beer for the month of January at a volume 236.55 hectolitres (hl) and production cost of N24,673,333, gross profit was observed to be N41,653,333 with net profit of N16,980,000. In the end of ANN procedure, maximum optimization profit rose from N16,980,000 to N21,958,263.43 which makes up 29.32% increase. The regression plot for comparison of Simplex method profit and ANN profit gave a reasonable correlation of 0.92735 and goodness of fit/correlation coefficient up to 0.85998. Hence, the neural network correlation results proved to be 92% accurate, when compared with the Simplex method of solving linear programming problems. Thus, this research, if implemented, will lead to an increase in the production rate of beer being recorded, which will eventually bring about an increase in production profit on a monthly basis in International Breweries Plc, Port Harcourt.
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Akaninwor, Godson Chijioke, Isaac, Okwu E. and Nkoi, Barinyima
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Sept, 2021 pp43–52 Optimization of Production in a Brewery using Artificial Neural Network [Online Full Text]
Abstract
In this study, reduction of boiler operational cost in a refinery was performed using reliability model. The boiler system was selected for reliability modelling as it has significant impacts on the plant production performance. The failure mode effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) of the boiler system was examined, and a maintenance task was developed for the system. The exponential reliability method was employed to analyse the failure data collected from the maintenance logbook of Port Harcourt Refining Company to carry out reliability modeling on their boiler system for operational cost efficiency. Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) identified all the perspectives of failures in the boiler systems’ function and employed the appropriate maintenance approach for each failure respectively. Broad based results showed that the RCM had great impact on the preventive maintenance (PM) tasks. The Run-To-Failure (RTF) frequency was reduced. The result showed that by carrying out the proposed RCM labour planthe labour cost decreased from N169, 344,000.00/year to N121,872,000.00/year (approximately 28.03% of the total labour cost) and about 33.71% of the annual spare parts cost was saved with the proposed PM plan. “The downtime cost (DTC) of the plant boiler was investigated. The proposed PM task results indicated a saving of about 29% of the total annual downtime cost as compared with the current maintenance (RTF) plan.” The maintenance program applied in this study could be adopted by production firms to improve upon the reliability and operational cost of their production equipment.
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Jonathan J. Kaura, Jackson G. Akpa and Barinyima Nkoi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Sept, 2021 pp53–62 Reduction of Boiler Operational Cost in a Refinery Using Reliability Model: A Case Study of Port Harcourt Refinery. [Online Full Text]
Abstract
Management policies determine how activities and routine operations are carried out in an organization. The reason for management policy on fabrication is to ensure the objectives of an organization are accomplished for the smooth operation of the fabrication process. The aim of this research is to determine the management policies that could affect the fabrication of subsea equipment. Correlation and multiple regression analysis was carried out using MATLAB to analyze the relationship between management policies and the fabrication of subsea equipment. The result of correlation analysis for Nigerian Content policy and fabrication of subsea equipment shows a positive weak strength linear relationship. The result of correlation analysis for Community Affairs policy and the fabrication of subsea equipment shows a positive weak strength linear relationship. The result of correlation analysis for Health Safety Environment policy and the fabrication of subsea equipment shows a minimal positive weak strength linear relationship or no relationship at all. The result of multiple regression analysis for Nigerian Content policy and the fabrication of subsea equipment reveals a nonsignificant relationship between them. The result of multiple regression analysis for Community Affairs policy and the fabrication of subsea equipment reveals a nonsignificant relationship between them. The result of multiple regression analysis for Health Safety Environment policy and the fabrication of subsea equipment reveals a nonsignificant relationship between them. This research will provide a basis for oil and gas fabrication companies to review enacted policies to find out the ones not achieving its objectives and amend it.
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Onyedikachi, O. J., Ukpaka C. P., and Nkoi, B.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Sept, 2021 pp63–73 Effect of Management Policies on Fabrication of Subsea Equipment: A Case Study [Online Full Text]
Abstract
In practical terms, energy losses in electrical power systems are inevitable. Power system losses, especially in distribution systems are usually high and result in increasing the cost of operations to the electricity utilities and the price tag of electricity to the consumers. The main objective of this research is to make an appraisal of an existing power distribution sector in Nigeria with special focus on loss reduction and efficiency improvement in power supply. Different major aspects of technical and nontechnical losses have been identified and based on that, a few remedial measures have been suggested for loss reduction and to facilitate the improvement of overall efficiency of the power distribution system Aggregate Technical, Commercial and Collection (ATC & C) Losses is a reliable parameter that reveals the true energy and revenue loss conditions of distribution systems. This study presents a pragmatic feeder-wise method for establishing the ATC & C losses in a typical Nigerian distribution system. Mathematical models were developed for the determination of key factors Billing efficiency, Collection efficiency, and ATC&C losses using the Garden City Main Integrated Business Centre network of the Port-Harcourt Distribution Company (PHEDC) of Nigeria as a case study. The analysis was achieved through extensive field survey and critical study of the schematic diagram of the network area. The average Billing efficiency, Collection efficiency and ATC&C losses for the period under review were found to be 68.60%, 76.29%, and 49.54% respectively. An understanding of appraisal of these losses is important to the power system Engineers, energy policy makers, and the power firms as it enables areas of high losses in the network to be identified, which will give room for credible investment plans, subsequent monitoring of the losses and ultimately result in profitability to the electricity utility.
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Abe, Omolara M., Orike, Sunny and Nkoi, Barinyima
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Sept, 2021 pp74–83 Energy Auditing of an Electricity Distribution System in Nigeria: A Case Study of Port Harcourt Electricity Distribution Company [Online Full Text]
Abstract
The study presented a comparative analysis and simulation of high voltage alternating current and direct current transmission network (a case study of transmission network connectivity of Bonny Island to Afam independent power project (IPP), Rivers State, Nigeria. This objective was achieved by obtaining the necessary data on power transformer and the route length from Afam IPP generating station to Bonny Island, the transformer current, the transformer loading, the active power, the reactive power, the apparent power, the complex power, the power factor and the phase voltage on each transformer on the network, the busbar current, the cable size, conductor resistance, the cross sectional area of the conductor, the voltage drop on each Buses, and the resistance of line per Kilometer, the components of the HVDC link (the rectifier and the inverter) were determined. Voltage stability technique was use in implementing the HVAC and HVDC transmission network. Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP 19.0.1) simulation software was used in designing transmission network. Newton-Raphson method was utilized in the achievement of the optimal load flow analysis of the network. The comparative analysis of HVAC and HVDC transmission network were performed, which indicate that the HVDC transmission network had 0.629Mvar different from the HVAC on Bus6 and Bus7. In conclusion HVDC transmission network was better-off than the HVAC network for the connectivity of Bonny Island to the national grid.
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Dumkhana, L., Ahiakwo, C. O., Idoniboyeobu, D. C., and Braide, S. L.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Sept, 2021 pp84–95 A Comparative Analysis and Simulation of the HVA Current and HVD Current connectivity of Bonny Island to the National Grid [Online Full Text]
Abstract
This paper presents the outcome of our research on the cost of gas production optimization in an oil field. To estimate the cost of gas redistribution, the following observations were arrived at: Gas storage/reinjection take priority, if the production goal is geared towards boosting the reservoir. Export Sales Gas is prioritized over Gas Lift Gas, on condition that maximum profit derivation becomes the essence for the gas production. Gas redistribution modes were formulated, and the following results were derived: alternate gas cost $152.076 (average per week) and fuel gas cost at $124.062 (average per week) for the period under review. While Diesel fuel cost at $2000 per day. The ratio of fuel gas usage was also compared with alternate fuel gas (diesel fuel) per day, which stood at 1:128 approximate. It indicates that diesel fuel usage cost one hundred and twenty-eight times (128) higher than the cost of average fuel gas usage per day.
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Enoch Oyokunyi, Okwu E. Isaac and Barinyima Nkoi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Sept, 2021 pp96–104 The Cost of Gas Production Optimization Using Linear Programing on Reverse Fishbone Diagram: A Case Study [Online Full Text]

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The Editor-in-Chief, JNET
Faculty of Engineering.
Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
E-mail: jnet@rsujnet.org, rsujnet@gmail.com
Phone: +2348034561089

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