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Volume 3 Issue 4

Abstract
This paper presents three swarm intelligence (SI) algorithms: Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO), Bee Colony Optimisation (BCO) and Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) as Load Flow Optimizers (LFO) for the solution of a power systems network. Studies were performed considering the number of sample iterations while the settings of other SI systemic parameters are held constant. Experiments were conducted by applying the SI-LFO to a section of the Nigerian 132kV Power Transmission Network (Port-Harcourt region). Results show that the PSO gave the best fitness performance overall after three simulation runs and iteration values of 500, 600, 700 and 1000; with a power mismatch of 7.105*10-15, 7.354*10-6 and 0.078 respectively for PSO, BCO and ACO after 1000 iterations. This suggests that particle swarming approach of the PSO is a more reliable swarm-optimizer for load flow studies in this application..
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Sunny Orike and Anthony A. Oko
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp1-8 A Comparative Study of Swarm Intelligence Techniques for Load Flow Optimization of the Nigerian 132kV Power Transmission Network [Online Full Text]
Abstract
Production engineering technologies are ever advancing to tackle problems encountered in manufacturing of products and rendering of services. This paper presents a number of challenges encountered by producers, and the industrial revolutions that these producers have kickstarted to handle these production challenges, while also identifying leadingedge production engineering technologies that have enabled these technological revolutions. The methodology employed was the systematic literature review of scholarly articles published between 2010 and 2021. The result of the research was the identification of some leading-edge production engineering technologies that are helping producers improve productivity such as robotics, smart factories and Internet of Things (IoT); Artificial Intelligence and predictive maintenance; 3D printing and additive manufacturing.
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Ovundah King Wofuru-Nyenke
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp9-17 Leading-Edge Production Engineering Technologies[Online Full Text]
Abstract
Power protection system is increasingly challenging as fault current level increases in electrical power system due to increase in static load, introduction of heavy-duty electric motors and increase in network interconnections. In order to coordinate relays effectively, load flow study and short circuit current analysis are carried out for proper selectivity. This analysis formed basis for optimal setting of Over Current Relays (OCRs) via Standard Inverse Timedelay (SIT). The detailed survey on the existing definite time delay with current time grading amounted to higher relay current-time configuration at the upstream in the steps of 0.5s up to a minimum time of 3s and with steps of 25% rated current increment to 250%, the upstream at this setting experienced thermal overload which was resolved via SIT. The inadequate relay definite time characteristics setting causing thermal overload (I2R) of the 25MVA and incessant tripping was resolved with SIT relay coordination scheme using Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP). This method also accommodated the associated circuit breakers response breaking capacity time (380ms to 500ms) which was a major achievement as compared to other inverse time delay characteristics such as Very Inverse Time (VIT), Extremely Inverse Time (EIT) etc.
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Horsfall D.J., Idoniboyeobu D.C., Ahiakwo C.O., Braide S.L.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp18-27 Relay Coordination Analysis in SPDC Forcados Distribution Network for Operation, Planning and Future Expansion[Online Full Text]
Abstract
The goal of several electrical power industries is to provide higher-quality power. Electrical power network harmonics are one of the most fundamental causes of poor power quality. This has become a significant issue in terms of power quality issues. As a result, harmonic analysis became necessary to investigate when modeling the distribution network in order to reduce or eliminate harmonic current or voltage. Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, (FUPRE) Delta State Distribution Network harmonic analysis, has been implemented in this work using Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP) software with the support of accelerated Newton Raphson method. To detect the existing harmonic distortion, a harmonic load flow analysis was performed. Harmonic frequency scan analysis, which calculates plots of impedance angle and impedance magnitude, was also used to investigate system resonance problems. According to IEEE 519, the standard limit for voltage total harmonic distortion (VTHD) is 5%, but the VTHD obtained from the FUPRE Network was 26.54 – 29.94%. The IEEE 519 Standard states that voltage individual harmonic distortion (VIHD) should not exceed 3%; however, 3.02 – 18.83% was obtained in the FUPRE Network. To eliminate the prevailing harmonic distortion, capacitors of 0.4MVar, 15Mvar, 0.7Mvar, and 0.1MVar were used, and the VTHD obtained was between 1.26 – 2.59 percent, with VIHD eliminated. This significantly improved the FUPRE Distribution Network's performance.
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Amakiri O. Friday and Okhueleigbe I. Emmanuel
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp28-42 Harmonic Analysis of Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun (FUPRE) Distribution Network[Online Full Text]
Abstract
Fuel is an essential product used by all farm machinery during their operations. In this study, field experiments were carried out to determine the variability in hourly and tilled area tractor fuel consumption during harrowing operations. An experimental plot of 138 m by 50 m (6900m2) area was cleared and divided into three blocks of nine sub-blocks. Each of the blocks was marked out in 2 m by 50m for different treatments. Alleys to the plot of dimensions of 1m by 50m were provided. The equipment and tractor used for the tillage operations were DFM 100CD fuel flow meter, disc harrow and Swaraj 978FE. Soil-implement-machine parameters (draught, moisture content, bulk density, tractor forward speed, harrowing depth, width of cut), time and tractor fuel efficiency parameters (hourly fuel consumption (FCh) and tilled area fuel consumption (FCta) during harrowing operations were determined. The experimental data obtained were analysed statistically by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Coefficient of variation (CV). The results obtained revealed that increased in the soil-machine-implement parameters increased in line with hourly and tilled area fuel consumption (FCh and FCta). ANOVA results also showed significant difference with 95% and highly significant at 99 % confidence levels and coefficient of variation (CV) of (a) 0.55 % and (b) 11 %; and (a) 0.18 % and (b) 0.13 %, which confirmed that experimental error was low and reliable. Generally, the variability in tractor fuel consumption during harrowing operations are influenced by variations in the soil implement-machine parameters and thereby become the determining factors to reduce fuel consumption.
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Raymond Alex Ekemube, Silas Ovua Nkakini, Asinyetogha Hilkiah Igoni, and Jackson Gunorubon Akpal
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp43 – 52 Determination of Variability in Hourly and Tilled Area Tractor Fuel Consumption during Harrowing Operations[Online Full Text]
Abstract
This report presents a review of the health and economic implication of artisanal refining process in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria as a case study. It also is examines the overall implication for Nigeria as a sub-Saharan country in Africa and the world at large. The reviewed literatures reveal an overwhelming air pollution that has broght death and hardship to the inhaitants of the region mostly affected. The study in response to the seemly uneding challenge, presents a modified artisanal refining process as an immediate option to eliminate air pollution resulting from black soot generated from artisanal refining process, improve on product specification and maximize product yield in the absence of a political will and resources to introduce modular refining to replace the ongoing artisanal refining that produces soot with the attendant fatal consequences in the region. The modified process considering chemical engineering processes, principles consist of an enclosed system with a fume cupboard - chimney for the furnace, four optimized heat exchangers, a Counter Current Flow Packed Tower (CCFPT), a force draft fan, a flue gas tank and a black soot slurry tank. In the modified process the vent gas is collected and used as a fuel for heating the crude oil while the waste water from the soot slurry is collected for further separation and treatment in a water treatment plant. To enable efficient process and equipment control strategy instrumentation of the process with the inclusion of Pressure and temperature gauges.
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Izionworu, Vincent Onuegbu, Ayotamuno Isaac and Godswill Nwaeze
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp53 – 63 A Review on the Impact of Black Soot from Artisinal Crude Oil Refining and a Modified Artisanal Refining Process[Online Full Text]
Abstract
The increasing demand of electricity power supply and its availability is indispensable to manage economically following the rapid growth of population to energy consumption capacity which is a major concern making the electricity sector industries to experienced significant implication for power plant operation to provide basic energy services to the people particularly to the reliability of the engineering component under review To achieve this goal the study will consider the application of reliability technique in order to analyse the activities of the failure times of ten identical gas-turbine blade of similar “make” and mode of operations subjected to the same conditions in Afam power station over a period of ten years, from the results obtained, the gasturbine blades were in their wear-out period of reliable maintenance to give out efficient performance following to the reliability of the three parameter weilbull distribution R(t) given as 0.60 this means that turbine blade actually required reliable maintenance. While, the failure rate of the turbine-blade  (t ): 0.082577 / hrs , the mean time to failure (MTTF): 13.55hours. The results obtained through the simulation of TPC windchill quality solution software estimated the parameters which shows suitable behaviour of the system components for early response for reliable maintenance. The reliability R(t ), failure rate  (t ) and meantime to failure (MTTF) were successively computed. Conclusively, the probability that the gas turbine blades under investigation will continue to be operational in service without failures is about 70% while the mean time to failure of the gas turbine blade is about 14hours..
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S. L. Braide, D. C. Idoniboyeobu
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp64 – 74 Gas Turbine Blade Reliability and Generator Optimal Estimation of Weilbull Probability Distribution[Online Full Text]
Abstract
In this work, the possibility of utilizing solar energy and wind energy for electricity generation in a proposed new power structure in Nigeria was examined. The wind and solar energy potentials of all the 36 states and the federal capital territory of Nigeria for electricity generation were assessed using data in the open literatures about selected locations in each state, usually, the state capitals. Using the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and the net present value (NPV) methods, the economic viability of the usage of both energy systems (solar photovoltaic (PV) system for solar energy conversion and wind turbines for wind energy conversion) were presented. Project life of 20 years at 9% discount rate together with electricity price of N55 per kWhr ($0.1339 per kW-hr) was used for the analysis. While it is not economically viable to operate wind energy system in several states in the southern part due to low wind speeds, the reverse is the case in few other states such as Anambra and Enugu states. It is economically viable to operate solar PV system on commercial scale in several states in the southern part, but in the northern part, solar PV systems can be operated on commercial scale profitably in all the states, with Yobe state having the lowest LCOE. The LCOE as a function of the wind speed and the solar irradiation were obtained in this work. These relations can aid quick assessment of the economic viability of operating either energy system in any location.
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Saturday, E. G. and Amafabia, D. M.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp75 – 87 Incorporating Solar and Wind Energy Technologies in the Power Mix of a Proposed Power Structure[Online Full Text]
Abstract
Fuel consumption is unavoidable in farm practices to boast mechanization of agriculture. In this study, field experiments were performed to evaluate the variability in tractor fuel efficiency parameters during ploughing operations. An experimental plot of 138 m by 50 m (6900m2) area was cleared and divided into three blocks of nine subblocks. Each of the blocks was marked out in 2 m by 50m for different treatments. Alleys to the plot of dimensions of 1m by 50m were provided. The equipment and tractor used for the tillage operations were DFM 100CD fuel flow meter, disc harrow and Swaraj 978FE. Soil-implement-machine parameters (draught, moisture content, bulk density, tractor forward speed, ploughing depth, width of cut), time and tractor fuel efficiency parameters (hourly fuel consumption (FCh) and tilled area fuel consumption (FCta)) during ploughing operations were evaluated. The field test data gotten were analysed statistically by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Coefficient of variation (CV). The results obtained revealed that increased in the soilmachine-implement parameters increased in line with hourly and tilled area fuel consumption (FCh and FCta). ANOVA results also showed significant difference with 95% and highly significant at 99 % confidence levels and coefficient of variation (CV) of (a) 0.07 % and (b) 07 %; and (a) 0.18 % and (b) 0.13 %, which inveterate that experimental error was low and dependable. In general, the variability in tractor fuel efficiency parameters during harrowing operations are influenced by differences in the soil-implement-machine parameters and thus become the decisive factors for reduction of fuel consumption.
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Raymond Alex Ekemube, Silas Ovua Nkakini, Asinyetogha Hilkiah Igoni, and Jackson Gunorubon Akpa
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp88 – 98 Evaluation of Tractor Fuel Efficiency Parameters Variability during Ploughing Operations[Online Full Text]
Abstract
This investigative study was aimed at comparatively evaluating the characteristics of biochars derived from Elaeis guineensis biomasses and activated with HCl for optimum produced water treatment. The biomasses (palm kernel shells, PKS and empty palm bunch, EPB) were prepared and converted to biochars by pyrolysis, and then activated with 0.2M HCl at a temperature of 450oC. The ACs (adsorbents) produced were characterised for pH, bulk density, particle size, iodine numbers, ash and moisture contents. The characteristics of the adsorbents indicate that the iodine numbers ranged from 700.14-1181.48mg/g for EPB particle sizes 75-1180 μm; 525.10-918.93mg/g for PKS particle sizes 150-1180 μm; ash content ranged from 6.20-6.80% for EPB and 2.00-2.80% PKS. Moisture content could get as low as 5.4% for EPB and 1.6% for PKS when warmed in an oven at 105oC for 1 hour. The acid concentration and adsorbent particle sizes were optimized; and based on iodine number, the 300μm particle size for both adsorbents (with pH= 9.8, iodine no.= 962.69, moisture content=5.4% and ash content=6.20% for the EPB, and pH = 7.4, iodine no.=918.93, moisture=6.2% and %ash=2.00 for the PKS) showed good prospects for removing contaminants and was therefore chosen for the treatment. To encourage local content development, it is recommended that activated carbons (Adsorbents) from Elaeis Guineensis biomasses should be mass-produced and used for PW treatment and other purposes. To improve on the adsorption capacity of the PKS any other stronger reagents should be used to activate it since from its bulk density, PKS is a strong material than EPB.
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Dune, Kingdom K., Ademiluyi, F. T., Nmegbu, G. C. J., Dagde, Kenneth K, & Nwosi-Anele, A. S.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp99 – 109 Comparative Study: Biochars from Elaeis Guineensis Biomasses activated with HCl for Optimum Produced Water Treatment[Online Full Text]
Abstract
Sifting of dewatered cassava mash lump into finer particles to remove oversized grain fractions is a key process in the cassava-to-garri production chain. However, to eliminate the problems associated with the traditional method of garri sifting in Nigeria, a motorized garri sifting machine was designed, fabricated, and tested. The machine design employed the fundamental principle of vibratory motion associated with rotor dynamic systems. It consists of the mainframe, hopper, sifting chamber, pulley, belt arrangement and the discharge outlet; and powered by two electric motors of 1-horsepower (0.745 kW) rating with angular speed of 1,725 rpm. The sifting action is achieved by an induced vibratory motion, generated by the rotation of the camshaft in the pulley and belt arrangement. The results of the performance evaluation of the machine showed a throughput capacity of 124 kg/hr, while the sifting capacity was 164 kg/hr, with an average sifting rate of 0.047 kg/s, resulting in an overall sifting efficiency of approximately 76%. The development of this machine has improved the timeliness of the garri sifting process and eliminated the drudgery and hazards associated with the prevalent manual sifting process.
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Nnanna C. Ajanwachuku, Silas O Nkakini, Asinyetogha H. Igoni
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp110 – 120 Development and Performance Evaluation of an Improved Garri Mash Sifter[Online Full Text]
Abstract
Longitudinal strength assessment is a regulatory requirement that precedes Tanker conversion to FPSO vessel in order to verify capacity and reveal the extent of renewal necessary for structural members of Tanker for the new service. This paper therefore presents Part 1, Longitudinal strength assessment of a Tanker “MV Energy concentration” for the actual conversion project that will be presented in Part 11. Use is made of elastic-plastic principles together with IACS (International Association of Classification Societies) Common Structural Rules and DnV design Codes for the prescribed analyses. Results reveal that the candidate Tanker requires structural modification in a few but critical structural elements for the new service. The section modulus for deck Longitudinals determined as 332543.296cm3 fell short by about 94% relative to the Rule required minimum value requiring serious intervention as do the deck girders with a Section modulus of 559421.4579 cm3 and capacity inadequacy of 99% relative to Rule required minimum. The deck plate thickness requirement also fell short by a minimum of about 30% requiring intervention. Conclusively, even with the confirmed buckling capacity adequacies of the longitudinal bulkheads and side-shells and section moduli at the deck and keel, some level of renewal is still necessary considering the effect of the severe site-specific environmental forces when being converted into FPSO and constrained to maintain position without dry-docking. Besides this, a very conservative analysis has been conducted as corrosion wastages were not considered and so, renewal is recommended as actual values will be lower than reported.
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Dick, Ibitoru F and Orji, Charles U.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp121 – 130 Tanker Conversion into FPSO vessel: Part 1 - Longitudinal Strength Assessment of the Candidate Tanker[Online Full Text]
Abstract
A comprehensive review of the research in vegetable oilbased lubricants and their applications was carried out in this study. The materials used in this review were from 38 research publications on vegetable oil-based lubricants as environmental friendly alternatives to petroleum-based lubricants. The methods used for gathering the materials were searched through the databases of publishers such as Google Scholar, Reseachgate, Sciencedirect, and multiple search engines. This was followed by sorting out the relevant ones for detailed review. The review showed research results on oils from various vegetable seeds, namely, groundnut, avocado, jatropha, water melon, star apple, sand box, nicker nut, Barbados nut, mango, black date, yellow oleander, calabash, castor, palm fruit syrup, neem, palm, mustard, cotton, soyabean, jojoba, olive, melon coconut, shea butter, palm kernel, african bean, and african elemi. The research areas were mainly on analysis of their physicochemical properties, experimental investigation of their tribological performance, and their industrial application. It is expected that the outcome of this review would constitute a repository of knowledge on the potentials in vegetable-based lubricants, particularly in their friction and wear behaviour.
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Steven Odi-Owei, John Ameh, Sylvanus Alibi, Akobuche Chikezie
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp131 – 143 Potential Vegetable Oil-based Lubricants: A Review[Online Full Text]
Abstract
The performance of activated coconut shell and corn cob as adsorbent for adsorption of iron (II) ion (Fe2+) and nickel (II) ion (Ni2+) from aqueous solution was investigated. Effects of initial metal concentration, temperature, dosage, pH, particle size and contact time on the adsorption was also studied. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms used Adsorption process. Results of the amount of metals removed, increased with increase in adsorbent dosage and contact time, while increase in temperature, initial metal concentration and particle size decreased the adsorption percentage. Fe2+ adsorption reached equilibrium at about 120 minutes, while that of Ni2+ was attained at about 150 minutes in both adsorbents. The adsorbents were more effective in the removal of Fe2+ (up to 83% removal at optimal conditions) than Ni3+ (with up to 67% removal at optimal conditions), while coconut shell slightly outperformed activated corn cob. The second order kinetics fitted better than the first order and the intra-particle diffusion. Hence, the pseudo second order kinetics is most suitable for the adsorption process. Finally, the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms, all showed capability for interpretation of Fe2+ and Ni2+ adsorption onto activated coconut shell and corn cob. Therefore, it is recommended that activated coconut shell and corn cob be used for treatment of industrial effluent before disposal, to reduce environmental contamination.
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Chie-Amadi, G. O.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp144 – 157 Kinetics and Isotherm of Heavy Metal Adsorption on Activated Nigerian Coconut Shell and Corn Cob[Online Full Text]
Abstract
The discharge of untreated industrial wastewater containing lead and the indiscriminate disposal of periwinkle shell causes lead poisoning and blockage of drainage. The cost of industrial wastewater treatment is demanding; thus the research is focused on creating wealth from waste periwinkle shell as a cheap adsorbent material to reduce the cost of lead removal from industrial wastewater. Therefore, activated periwinkle shell char (APSC) in removal of lead Pb (II) ion from industry wastewater was investigated using fixed-bed adsorption column. APSC was prepared by treating the periwinkle Char with 1M H2SO4 solution. Characterization of the adsorbent before and after continuous adsorption was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to show modifications in the surface and chemical structure of APSC after adsorption process. The effect of design variables such as bed height, Influent concentration and withdrawal flowrate were studied. The breakthrough profiles were obtained by an analysis of the column experimental data and the relationship between operating parameters using the Thomas, Clark, Yoon-Nelson and Adams-Bohart models. The equilibrium data was best represented by the Yoon and Nelson model having the highest correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9751. This suggest that Activated periwinkle shell char is a potential adsorbent for heavy metals removal from industrial wastewater.
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Babalola R. and Aniediong U.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp158 – 168 Recovery of Lead (II) Ion from Industrial Wastewater using Activated Periwinkle Char in Fixed Bed Adsorption Process[Online Full Text]
Abstract
In this study, the potential of utilizing biogas from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), as a potent alternative source of energy in Nigeria, was vividly established. The current energy situation and extent of integration of MSW in the energy mix in Nigeria was critically examined. The energy potential of MSW in Nigeria was determined, especially in relation to the quantum of MSW generated in the country. This was done in juxtaposition with energy generated from other sources in the country, with their attendant environmental implications. The trend analysis indicated a general and steady decline in the energy generation and consumption pattern in the country, in the last decade, which was attributable to her mono dependence on fossil fuel.
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Asinyetogha H. Igoni, Ibiye D. Amafabia, Davidson D. Davis
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), Dec, 2021 pp169 – 180 Biogas Production from Municipal Solid Waste: An Energy Imperative for Nigeria[Online Full Text]

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Faculty of Engineering.
Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
E-mail: jnet@rsujnet.org, rsujnet@gmail.com
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