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Volume 4 Issue 3

The design and operating conditions of cooling towers in recirculating cooling-water systems have been the focus of manufacturers and process engineers with a concern for energy conservation process as main objective. The question of how to improve a cooling tower's effective performance is still getting much of attention. The cooling tower's efficiency is great when the incoming cooling water has moderate temperature and a low flow rate; in other words, the cooling tower removes more heat from the water. In this research an existing model was applied, simulated and then optimize by varying some parameters using Latin Square Design to show the influence of the re-circulating cooling-water inlet temperature, air outlet temperature, water flow rate and the air flow rate on the effectiveness of the cooling tower operation. It was discovered that as the water/air mass flow ratio, L/G, and the outlet air temperature increases, the cooling water range, R and cooling tower efficiency, 𝜂, decrease. Water cooling was best achieved at moderate inlet water temperature, low outlet air temperature, low water mass flow rate, and high air mass flow rate, higher efficiencies are obtained at lower inlet water temperatures for the same water/air mass flow ratio, and the greater the range of the cooling water, R, the higher the cooling tower efficiency.
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Adenuga, Peter, Wordu, Animia A., Ehirim, Emmanuel O. and Adenuga, Ronke
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), December, 2022 pp1-15 [Online Full Text] of
Performance Evaluation of a Counter Flow Wet Cooling Tower Using Latin Square Design
The research study focused on kinetic parameters (preexponential factors and activation energies) estimation as a vital tool in solving the developed model equations of the hydrocracker reactor attached to the striping section of the modified modular refinery operations in Nigeria using five lump reaction path schemes. The estimation of these parameters are important as it gives best and most efficient values in comparison to experimental and literature data. Thus, these parameters are required in solving the developed model equations of the hydrocracker reactor. The principle of conservation of mass was applied in developing steady state models for packed bed catalytic hydrocracker reactor based on the evaluated isothermal nature of reaction taking place in the hydrocracker reactor. The kinetic parameters (preexponential factors and activation energies) for the five lump reaction scheme were evaluated using single point regression analysis with MATLAB software, and the results of preexponential factors for light ends, naphtha, diesel and bottom products were 51.9547hr-1, 9.2999E8hr-1, 2.3399E16hr-1 and 2.25E8hr-1 respectively, while the estimated values of activation energy for light ends, naphtha, diesel and bottom products are 5.6151Kcal/mol, 41.3388Kcal/mol, 48.5074Kcal/mol and 23.5293Kcal/mol respectively. These results were compared with kinetic parameters experimental data of similar hydrocracker reactor study with percentage absolute error or minimum deviations within the allowable range. Therefore, these estimated kinetic parameters data are pertinent tools applied in solving the steady state models developed for hydrocracker reactor, thereby predicting the performance of the hydrocracker reactor with high efficiency or degree of accuracy.
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Adeloye, Olalekan Michael, Akpa, Jackson Gonurubon, Dagde, Kenneth Kekpugile, Ehirim, Emmanuel Odionyegbuechua, Igbagara, Princewill Woyinbrakemi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), December, 2022 pp16-26 [Online Full Text] of
Kinetic Parameters Estimation for Hydrocracker Reactor using Five Lumps Reaction Scheme
The successful application of the well-known medicinal plant, Costus afer, in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil adds to the list of what the plant can potentially do to rid the environment of harmful chemical compounds to enhance human and environmental health. This study investigated the potential of Costus afer plant at various ages (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days old) to restore petroleum hydrocarboncontaminated soil. The contamination of 48kg of sandyloam soil was simulated by mixing 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5L of Bonny-Light crude oil with the soil in three separate vessels to achieve conditions of low, medium, and high contamination, respectively. An additional vessel with medium-level contaminated soil served as the control. The Costus afer plants were nursed and transplanted at the stated ages to each vessel except the control. Controlled irrigation was applied, and the setups were housed to shield them from rainfall. After 90 days of treatment, results showed that the 7 days old Costus afer plants produced the highest amounts of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 97.42, 94.64, and 95.12% in the soil with low, medium, and high contamination, respectively. Furthermore, the sequence of TPH reduction by the plants was 14 days old, 21 days old, 28 days old, 35 days old, and 42 days old. Thus, in addition to its medicinal value, Costus afer plant also has the potential to decontaminate petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.
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R. N. Okparanma, C. Emeka and A. H. Igoni
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), December, 2022 pp27-38 [Online Full Text] of
Phytoremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil using Costus afer Plant
An unsteady state models for a continuous stirred tank reactor was developed applying principles of conservation of mass and energy to predict feed (reactants) depletion and product formation using three different catalysts namely alumina (Al2O3), Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Copper (Cu). The results obtained from the developed model showed the concentration of product formation using three different catalysts. As the reaction progresses in the reactor the temperature increases which shows a corresponding conversion of the feeds in the reactor. The temperature increased to a maximum of 592K. The developed models were validated with literature values. The simulation was done by MATLAB R2020 and numerically solved using Runge-Kutta method. A sensitivity analysis was carried out on the fractional conversion on Methanol formation. The optimal values from the simulation were obtained using the calculus second differential method to be 0.7426mol/l, 0.6094mol/l, 1.3712mol/l and 1.4054mol/l, respectively.
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Odogwu, J. O., Akpa, J. G. and Wordu, A. A.
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), December, 2022 pp39-49 [Online Full Text] of
Modeling and Simulation of a Non-Isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor for Methanol Synthesis Using Different Catalyst
This paper is aimed at applying a wireless sensor network system for the detection of soot in Port Harcourt. The soot particle was collected by open-air trapping on white paper and was stored for characterization. The soot was characterized using Gas Chromatography – Flame Ionization Detector (GC – FID) and Fourier transforminfrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy methods. GC - FID provides the concentration of the compositions contained in a particular sample. The FT-IR analysis revealed the presence of the functional groups that identified the presence of NO2, CO2, NH2, CO, SO4, CH4 and H2S. From the research findings NO2, CO2, NH2, CO, SO4, CH4 and H2S were identified to be part of soot compositions. The FT-IR spectra showed the presence of some functional groups related to the presence of NO2, CO2, NH2, CO, SO4, CH4 and H2S. Based on the identified compositions a sensor-detecting system was designed and constructed for the monitoring and detection of soot. Each sensor module transmits the current levels of NO2, CO, SO4, CH4, H2S, CO2, NH2 through a GSM module. Also, findings from the study show that the detector system identified soot in different environments and was able to detect increases or decreases in soot concentration on a real-time basis. A GSM module was incorporated to store, monitor, process, and visualize the data received from the sensor network.
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Sunny Orike, Bodunrin I. Bakare and Collins B. Amadi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), December, 2022 pp50-59 [Online Full Text] of
A Microcontroller-Based Wireless Sensor Network System for the Detection of Soot in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
The freshwater habitat of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria currently faces oil spill challenges which arise not only from Crude oil and its refined products but also animal fats, vegetable oils as well as other nonpetroleum oils. The harmful effect of Spilled Petroleum and non-petroleum oil on the environment stems from their similar chemical and physical properties, which produce harmful effects on the environment. Oil spill remediation is achieved using chemical, biological, or physical processes to sorb oil from the surface of contaminated water. This study investigates the use of waste chicken feathers as sorbents for oil clean-up which is a physical process. The sorption capacity of waste chicken feathers was experimented on water contaminated with vegetable oil, peanut oil and engine oil. The experimental results showed that waste chicken feather have a high oil sorption capacity of 20.59g for Vegetable oil/g of sorbent and low water sorption capacity of 0.98g of water/g of sorbent and are highly oleophilic and hydrophobic. Waste chicken feathers when used for oil spill clean-up, only interacts with the oil at the surface of oil/water mixture, it does not sink or mix with the water below and is not prone to degrading in the water when left for a long period.
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Kaine Chinwah, Juliet Gift-Onyesoh Adewale Adeyemi
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), December, 2022 pp60-68 [Online Full Text] of
Waste Chicken Feathers as Sorbents for Hydrocarbon and Non-Hydrocarbon Spills
The problem of incipient fault localization and classification in power transmission lines is an emerging area of power system research that seeks to determine the likelihood or probability of fault just before its occurrence. This involves the determination of power line fault signatures and online characterization of line parameters. This research paper applies a simulations and data driven based approach emphasizing resonance theory of transmission lines and neural intelligence for effective fault location determination and incipient fault prediction in transmission lines. Simulations considering the NeuroAMI predictor for the PSD signals showed that apart from peaks of about 25V/k-Hz, 27V/k-Hz and 35V/k-Hz, the proposed neural predictor fault location estimates closely matched the expected fault locations. Considering the data-driven approach based on a public dataset, the proposed NeuroAMi technique showed superior RMSE values over the conventional BP-FFANN.
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Biobele A. Wokoma, Dikio C. Idoniboyeobu, Christopher O. Ahiakwo and Sepribo L. Braide
Journal of Newviews in Engineering and Technology (JNET), December, 2022 pp69-76 [Online Full Text] of
Incipient Fault Localization and Classification for Transmission Lines using Neural Intelligent Technique.

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